a. Mining as it pertains to the economy for this region and as being associated with “dirty energy”
b. The ecological impact that this industry has had on the natural resources in this region.
i. Differentiate restoration literature like reclamation, restoration, rehabilitation, etc.
i. Habitat loss
1. Water contamination
a. kills & disrupts aquatic species
2. Aesthetically unappealing
ii. Forest loss
1. loss of carbon stock
2. soil degradation
b. Coal ash
a. Environmental Justice
b. Health impacts on local/regional residents
i. Drinking water pollution & air contamination
1. lower life expectancy
2. heart/respiratory complications
3. increased cancer rates
a. Pertaining to legislature that has been passed/how that may limit or improve the study region
b. Forestry Reclamation Act & Surface Mining Control Reclamation Act (SMCRA) & Stream Protection Rule are inadequate
c. Abandoned Mine Land fund (other funding sources)
i. National Mining Association- stating that funds are used inadequately & priorities should be shifted to bring bring coal jobs back and environmental regulations should be lessened (supported by president Trump)
d. RECLAIM Act (http://appvoices.org/tag/reclaim-act/)
i. Meeting requirements: sections 403(a) (of 30 USC 1233) & 416(c)
ii. 30% can be used for acid mine drainage/10% for planning and admin
no more than 50% can be used for mine land restoration
iii. Role of the Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement (OSMRE)
a. The potential to better utilize or rehabilitate these sites based on various geographic data sets to improve both the people and the environment with data driven decision making.
i. Brief overview of GIS analysis and applications. This tool as a land rating system based on related factors mentioned below.
ii. Examples of the factors that influence the land use that will be used in the model. This “Land Sustainability Spectrum” is a rating tool for sustainable landscape planning as it pertains to ecological restoration versus economic development for surface mine sites
1. Economical: Size of site, proximity to societal vibrancy, social conditions, proximity to features, land use/zoning, site capacity (power, water, sewer connection)
2. Ecological: Wildlife migratory routes, invasive species, vegetation change, habitat capacity, soil properties, impaired water, outdoor recreation/viewsheds, slope, wetlands, conservation easements, etc.
iii. Data limitations
a. SWOT analysis (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats) of mine land
i. Regarding physical nature and socio-economic conditions
1. Success stories
2. New investments
ii. Milestones and focused recommendations
iii. Brief Input/Output Analysis (logic model)